Research and development of modelling methods and approaches in manufacturing of dental recoveries with the application of modern technologies and computer aided systems

Link to this page

info:eu-repo/grantAgreement/MESTD/Technological Development (TD or TR)/35020/RS//

Research and development of modelling methods and approaches in manufacturing of dental recoveries with the application of modern technologies and computer aided systems (en)
Истраживање и развој метода моделирања и поступака израде денталних надокнада применом савремених технологија и рачунаром подржаних система (sr)
Istraživanje i razvoj metoda modeliranja i postupaka izrade dentalnih nadoknada primenom savremenih tehnologija i računarom podržanih sistema (sr_RS)
Authors

Publications

In vitro cytotoxicity assessment of the 3D printed polymer based epoxy resin intended for use in dentistry

Puškar, Tatjana; Trifković, Branka; Đurović-Koprivica, Daniela; Kojić, Vesna; Jevremović, Ana; Mirković, Siniša; Eggbeer, Dominic

(Vojnomedicinska akademija - Institut za naučne informacije, Beograd, 2019)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Puškar, Tatjana
AU  - Trifković, Branka
AU  - Đurović-Koprivica, Daniela
AU  - Kojić, Vesna
AU  - Jevremović, Ana
AU  - Mirković, Siniša
AU  - Eggbeer, Dominic
PY  - 2019
UR  - https://smile.stomf.bg.ac.rs/handle/123456789/2446
AB  - Background/Aim. There is limited published evidence on the cytotoxicity of 3D printed polymer materials for dentistry applications, despite that they are now widely used in medicine. Stereolithography (SLA) is one of the foremost 3D processes used in 3D printing, yet there are only a small number of resin materials reported to be suitable for medical applications. The aim of this study was to investigate, in vitro, the cytotoxic effect of the 3D printed resin in order to establish the suitability for its usage in dentistry and related medical applications such as surgical dental guides, occlusal splits and orthodontic devices. Methods. To examine the cytotoxicity of the 3D printed polymer-based epoxy resin, Accura® ClearVue™ (3D-Systems, USA), two cell cultures were used: mouse fibroblasts L929, and human lung fibroblasts MRC-5. The cell viability was determined by the Mosmann's colorimetric (MTT) test and the agar diffusion test (ADT). Results. Direct contact of the tested material with the ADT test showed nontoxic effects of tested material in any cell culture. The tested material showed no cytotoxic effect after 3 days of extraction of the eluate by the MTT, but mild cytotoxic effect after 5, 7 and 21 days on both cell lines. The cytotoxicity increased with increasing the time of the eluate extraction. Conclusion. The 3D printed polymer-based epoxy resin, Accura® ClearVue™ (3D-Systems, USA) is considered appropriate for making surgical dental implant guides according to the cytotoxic behavior. According to the mild level of cytotoxicity after the longer extraction periods, there is a need for further evaluation of biocompatibility for its application for the occlusal splints and orthodontic devices.
AB  - Uvod/Cilj. Malo je objavljenih dokaza o citotoksičnosti 3D štampanih polimernih materijala za upotrebu u stomatologiji, bez obzira na njihovu sve širu primenu u medicini. Stereolitografija (SLA) jedan je od najvažnijih 3D procesa koji se primenjuje za 3D štampu, ali postoji samo Mali broj materijala na bazi smola za koje je dokazano da su pogodni za medicinsku primenu. Cilj ove studije je bio da se ispita, in vitro, citotoksični efekat 3D štampanog polimera kako bi se utvrdila mogućnost za njegovu upotrebu u stomatologiji i srodnim medicinskim oblastima, kao što su hirurške dentalne vođice, okluzalni splintovi i ortodontski aparati. Metode. Da bi se ispitala citotoksičnost 3D štampanog polimera na bazi epoksi smole, Accura® ClearVue ™ (3D-Sistems, USA), korišc'ene su dve c'elijske kulture: fibroblasti miša L929 i humani fibroplasti pluc'a MRC-5. Vijabilnost c'elija utvrđena je Mosmannovim kolorimetrijskim testom (MTT) i testom difuzije agara (ADT). Rezultati. Direktan kontakt testiranog materijala ispitan pomoću ADT pokazao je da materijal nije imao citotoksičan efekat ni na jednu ćelijsku kulturu. Testitrani materijal je imao blag citotoksični efekat posle 5, 7 i 21 dana ekstrakcije eluata primenom MTT na obe ćelijske linije. Citotoksičnost je rasla sa produženjem vremena ekstrakcije eluata. Zaključak. 3D štampani polimer na bazi epoksi smole, Accura® ClearVue ™ (3D-Sistems, USA) se može smatrati pogodnim za izradu hirurških dentalnih implantnih vođica sa tačke gledišta njegovog citotoksičnog uticaja. Zbog pokazanih blagih citotoksičnih efekata nakon dužih ekstrakcionih perioda eluata potrebna su dalja istraživanja u oblasti biokompatibilnosti materijala da bi se taj polimer mogao koristiti za izradu okluzalnih splintova i ortodontskih aparata.
PB  - Vojnomedicinska akademija - Institut za naučne informacije, Beograd
T2  - Vojnosanitetski pregled
T1  - In vitro cytotoxicity assessment of the 3D printed polymer based epoxy resin intended for use in dentistry
T1  - In vitro procena citotoksičnosti 3D štampanog polimera na bazi epoksi smole namenjenog za upotrebu u stomatologiji
VL  - 76
IS  - 5
SP  - 502
EP  - 509
DO  - 10.2298/VSP170721127P
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Puškar, Tatjana and Trifković, Branka and Đurović-Koprivica, Daniela and Kojić, Vesna and Jevremović, Ana and Mirković, Siniša and Eggbeer, Dominic",
year = "2019",
abstract = "Background/Aim. There is limited published evidence on the cytotoxicity of 3D printed polymer materials for dentistry applications, despite that they are now widely used in medicine. Stereolithography (SLA) is one of the foremost 3D processes used in 3D printing, yet there are only a small number of resin materials reported to be suitable for medical applications. The aim of this study was to investigate, in vitro, the cytotoxic effect of the 3D printed resin in order to establish the suitability for its usage in dentistry and related medical applications such as surgical dental guides, occlusal splits and orthodontic devices. Methods. To examine the cytotoxicity of the 3D printed polymer-based epoxy resin, Accura® ClearVue™ (3D-Systems, USA), two cell cultures were used: mouse fibroblasts L929, and human lung fibroblasts MRC-5. The cell viability was determined by the Mosmann's colorimetric (MTT) test and the agar diffusion test (ADT). Results. Direct contact of the tested material with the ADT test showed nontoxic effects of tested material in any cell culture. The tested material showed no cytotoxic effect after 3 days of extraction of the eluate by the MTT, but mild cytotoxic effect after 5, 7 and 21 days on both cell lines. The cytotoxicity increased with increasing the time of the eluate extraction. Conclusion. The 3D printed polymer-based epoxy resin, Accura® ClearVue™ (3D-Systems, USA) is considered appropriate for making surgical dental implant guides according to the cytotoxic behavior. According to the mild level of cytotoxicity after the longer extraction periods, there is a need for further evaluation of biocompatibility for its application for the occlusal splints and orthodontic devices., Uvod/Cilj. Malo je objavljenih dokaza o citotoksičnosti 3D štampanih polimernih materijala za upotrebu u stomatologiji, bez obzira na njihovu sve širu primenu u medicini. Stereolitografija (SLA) jedan je od najvažnijih 3D procesa koji se primenjuje za 3D štampu, ali postoji samo Mali broj materijala na bazi smola za koje je dokazano da su pogodni za medicinsku primenu. Cilj ove studije je bio da se ispita, in vitro, citotoksični efekat 3D štampanog polimera kako bi se utvrdila mogućnost za njegovu upotrebu u stomatologiji i srodnim medicinskim oblastima, kao što su hirurške dentalne vođice, okluzalni splintovi i ortodontski aparati. Metode. Da bi se ispitala citotoksičnost 3D štampanog polimera na bazi epoksi smole, Accura® ClearVue ™ (3D-Sistems, USA), korišc'ene su dve c'elijske kulture: fibroblasti miša L929 i humani fibroplasti pluc'a MRC-5. Vijabilnost c'elija utvrđena je Mosmannovim kolorimetrijskim testom (MTT) i testom difuzije agara (ADT). Rezultati. Direktan kontakt testiranog materijala ispitan pomoću ADT pokazao je da materijal nije imao citotoksičan efekat ni na jednu ćelijsku kulturu. Testitrani materijal je imao blag citotoksični efekat posle 5, 7 i 21 dana ekstrakcije eluata primenom MTT na obe ćelijske linije. Citotoksičnost je rasla sa produženjem vremena ekstrakcije eluata. Zaključak. 3D štampani polimer na bazi epoksi smole, Accura® ClearVue ™ (3D-Sistems, USA) se može smatrati pogodnim za izradu hirurških dentalnih implantnih vođica sa tačke gledišta njegovog citotoksičnog uticaja. Zbog pokazanih blagih citotoksičnih efekata nakon dužih ekstrakcionih perioda eluata potrebna su dalja istraživanja u oblasti biokompatibilnosti materijala da bi se taj polimer mogao koristiti za izradu okluzalnih splintova i ortodontskih aparata.",
publisher = "Vojnomedicinska akademija - Institut za naučne informacije, Beograd",
journal = "Vojnosanitetski pregled",
title = "In vitro cytotoxicity assessment of the 3D printed polymer based epoxy resin intended for use in dentistry, In vitro procena citotoksičnosti 3D štampanog polimera na bazi epoksi smole namenjenog za upotrebu u stomatologiji",
volume = "76",
number = "5",
pages = "502-509",
doi = "10.2298/VSP170721127P"
}
Puškar, T., Trifković, B., Đurović-Koprivica, D., Kojić, V., Jevremović, A., Mirković, S.,& Eggbeer, D.. (2019). In vitro cytotoxicity assessment of the 3D printed polymer based epoxy resin intended for use in dentistry. in Vojnosanitetski pregled
Vojnomedicinska akademija - Institut za naučne informacije, Beograd., 76(5), 502-509.
https://doi.org/10.2298/VSP170721127P
Puškar T, Trifković B, Đurović-Koprivica D, Kojić V, Jevremović A, Mirković S, Eggbeer D. In vitro cytotoxicity assessment of the 3D printed polymer based epoxy resin intended for use in dentistry. in Vojnosanitetski pregled. 2019;76(5):502-509.
doi:10.2298/VSP170721127P .
Puškar, Tatjana, Trifković, Branka, Đurović-Koprivica, Daniela, Kojić, Vesna, Jevremović, Ana, Mirković, Siniša, Eggbeer, Dominic, "In vitro cytotoxicity assessment of the 3D printed polymer based epoxy resin intended for use in dentistry" in Vojnosanitetski pregled, 76, no. 5 (2019):502-509,
https://doi.org/10.2298/VSP170721127P . .
10
4
8

3d digitization of featureless dental models using close range photogrammetry aided by noise based patterns

Santoši, Željko; Budak, Igor; Sokac, Mario; Puškar, Tatjana; Vukelić, Đorđe; Trifković, Branka

(Univerzitet u Nišu, Niš, 2018)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Santoši, Željko
AU  - Budak, Igor
AU  - Sokac, Mario
AU  - Puškar, Tatjana
AU  - Vukelić, Đorđe
AU  - Trifković, Branka
PY  - 2018
UR  - https://smile.stomf.bg.ac.rs/handle/123456789/2270
AB  - Development and improvement of 3D digitizing systems provide for the ability to digitize a growing number of materials and geometrical forms of greater complexity. This paper presents the application of 3D digitizing system using close range photogrammetry on the upper jaw cast in plaster in order to obtain its 3D model. Because of the low visual characteristics of gypsum, such as color and texture, many questions arise about the possibility of applying this particular method to this type of physical models. In order to overcome bad visual properties of gypsum, this paper analyzes the possibility of the photogrammetry method application supported by the projected light texture which is based on patterns in the form of noise-obtained mathematically modeled functions. In order to determine the selected image for light texture which gives the better results, an experiment was designed and carried out. Only two images were tested. One image is selected based on previous research and the other one was generated by the Matlab function for uniformly distributed random numbers. For validation and a comparative analysis of the results, an object of 3D digitization was generated with and without projected light texture. CAD inspection was applied for the analysis of the obtained 3D digitizing results. 3D model obtained by approved professional optical 3D scanner as a reference was used. The results in this paper confirm better accuracy of 3D models obtained with the use of light textures, but this approach requires additional hardware and setup adjustment for images acquisition.
PB  - Univerzitet u Nišu, Niš
T2  - Facta Universitatis - Series Mechanical Engineering
T1  - 3d digitization of featureless dental models using close range photogrammetry aided by noise based patterns
VL  - 16
IS  - 3
SP  - 297
EP  - 305
DO  - 10.22190/FUME170620029S
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Santoši, Željko and Budak, Igor and Sokac, Mario and Puškar, Tatjana and Vukelić, Đorđe and Trifković, Branka",
year = "2018",
abstract = "Development and improvement of 3D digitizing systems provide for the ability to digitize a growing number of materials and geometrical forms of greater complexity. This paper presents the application of 3D digitizing system using close range photogrammetry on the upper jaw cast in plaster in order to obtain its 3D model. Because of the low visual characteristics of gypsum, such as color and texture, many questions arise about the possibility of applying this particular method to this type of physical models. In order to overcome bad visual properties of gypsum, this paper analyzes the possibility of the photogrammetry method application supported by the projected light texture which is based on patterns in the form of noise-obtained mathematically modeled functions. In order to determine the selected image for light texture which gives the better results, an experiment was designed and carried out. Only two images were tested. One image is selected based on previous research and the other one was generated by the Matlab function for uniformly distributed random numbers. For validation and a comparative analysis of the results, an object of 3D digitization was generated with and without projected light texture. CAD inspection was applied for the analysis of the obtained 3D digitizing results. 3D model obtained by approved professional optical 3D scanner as a reference was used. The results in this paper confirm better accuracy of 3D models obtained with the use of light textures, but this approach requires additional hardware and setup adjustment for images acquisition.",
publisher = "Univerzitet u Nišu, Niš",
journal = "Facta Universitatis - Series Mechanical Engineering",
title = "3d digitization of featureless dental models using close range photogrammetry aided by noise based patterns",
volume = "16",
number = "3",
pages = "297-305",
doi = "10.22190/FUME170620029S"
}
Santoši, Ž., Budak, I., Sokac, M., Puškar, T., Vukelić, Đ.,& Trifković, B.. (2018). 3d digitization of featureless dental models using close range photogrammetry aided by noise based patterns. in Facta Universitatis - Series Mechanical Engineering
Univerzitet u Nišu, Niš., 16(3), 297-305.
https://doi.org/10.22190/FUME170620029S
Santoši Ž, Budak I, Sokac M, Puškar T, Vukelić Đ, Trifković B. 3d digitization of featureless dental models using close range photogrammetry aided by noise based patterns. in Facta Universitatis - Series Mechanical Engineering. 2018;16(3):297-305.
doi:10.22190/FUME170620029S .
Santoši, Željko, Budak, Igor, Sokac, Mario, Puškar, Tatjana, Vukelić, Đorđe, Trifković, Branka, "3d digitization of featureless dental models using close range photogrammetry aided by noise based patterns" in Facta Universitatis - Series Mechanical Engineering, 16, no. 3 (2018):297-305,
https://doi.org/10.22190/FUME170620029S . .
5
4
6

Measurement of the accuracy of dental working casts using a coordinate measuring machine

Potran, Michal; Štrbac, Branko; Puškar, Tatjana; Hadžistević, Miodrag; Hodolič, Janko; Trifković, Branka

(Vojnomedicinska akademija - Institut za naučne informacije, Beograd, 2016)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Potran, Michal
AU  - Štrbac, Branko
AU  - Puškar, Tatjana
AU  - Hadžistević, Miodrag
AU  - Hodolič, Janko
AU  - Trifković, Branka
PY  - 2016
UR  - https://smile.stomf.bg.ac.rs/handle/123456789/2080
AB  - Background/Aim. Dental impressions present a negative imprint of intraoral tissues of a patient which is, by pouring in gypsum, transferred extraorally on the working cast. Casting an accurate and precise working cast presents the first and very important step, since each of the following stages contributes to the overall error of the production process, which can lead to inadequately fitting dental restorations. The aim of this study was to promote and test a new model and technique for in vitro evaluation of the dental impression accuracy, as well as to asses the dimensional stability of impression material depending on the material bulk, and its effect on the accuracy of working casts. Methods. Impressions were made by the monophasic technique using the experimental master model. Custom trays with spacing of 1, 2 and 3 mm were constructed by rapid prototyping. The overall of 10 impressions were made with each custom tray. Working casts were made with gypsum type IV. Measurement of working casts was done 24 h later using a coordinate measuring machine. Results. The obtained results show that the working casts of all the three custom trays were in most cases significantly different in the transversal and sagittal planes in relation to the master model. The height of abutments was mainly unaffected. The degree of convergence showed certain significance in all the three custom trays, most pronounced in the tray with 3 mm spacing. Conclusion. The impression material bulk of 1-3 mm could provide accurate working casts when using the monophasic impression technique. The increase of the distance between abutment teeth influences the accuracy of working casts depending on the material bulk.
AB  - Uvod/Cilj. Otisak predstavlja negativ intraoralnih tkiva, čijim se izlivanjem u gipsu njihova morfologija prenosi ekstraoralno na budući radni model. Sa laboratorijskog aspekta izrade zubnih nadoknada, izlivanje tačnog i preciznog radnog modela predstavlja prvi i veoma bitan korak, pošto svaka sledeća faza doprinosi daljem povećanju greške tokom izrade, što za krajnji ishod može imati neodgovarajuću zubnu nadoknadu. Cilj istraživanja bio je da se ispitaju novi model i tehnika za in vitro procenu preciznosti zubnih otisaka, kao i da se odredi uticaj količine otisnog materijala na dimenzionu stabilnost otisaka i preciznost izrade radnih modela. Metode. Za uzimanje otisaka korišćena je monofazna tehnika otiskivanja. Individualne kašike sa međuprostorom od 1, 2 i 3 mm napravljene su aditivnom tehnologijom za brzu izradu prototipova. Sa svakom kašikom napravljeno je po 10 otisaka. Radni modeli izlivani su u gipsu tipa IV. Merenje radnih modela vršeno je nakon 24 sata na koordinatnoj mernoj mašini. Rezultati. Rezultati pokazuju da radni modeli napravljeni pomoću sve tri individulane kašike u transverzalnoj i sagitalnoj ravni značajno odstupaju od glavnog dela modela. Visina patrljaka je u većini slučajeva bila kao na glavnom modelu. Stepen konvergencije pokazao je određena odstupanja samo kod kašike sa međuprostorom od 3 mm. Zaključak. Monofazna tehnika otiskivanja i otisni materijal debljine od 1 do 3 mm obezbeđuju izradu preciznih radnih modela. Rastojanje između zubnih patrljaka utiče na preciznost izrade radnih modela u zavisnosti od količine otisnog materijala.
PB  - Vojnomedicinska akademija - Institut za naučne informacije, Beograd
T2  - Vojnosanitetski pregled
T1  - Measurement of the accuracy of dental working casts using a coordinate measuring machine
T1  - Ispitivanje preciznosti radnih modela pomoću koordinatne merne mašine u stomatologiji
VL  - 73
IS  - 10
SP  - 895
EP  - 903
DO  - 10.2298/VSP150105089P
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Potran, Michal and Štrbac, Branko and Puškar, Tatjana and Hadžistević, Miodrag and Hodolič, Janko and Trifković, Branka",
year = "2016",
abstract = "Background/Aim. Dental impressions present a negative imprint of intraoral tissues of a patient which is, by pouring in gypsum, transferred extraorally on the working cast. Casting an accurate and precise working cast presents the first and very important step, since each of the following stages contributes to the overall error of the production process, which can lead to inadequately fitting dental restorations. The aim of this study was to promote and test a new model and technique for in vitro evaluation of the dental impression accuracy, as well as to asses the dimensional stability of impression material depending on the material bulk, and its effect on the accuracy of working casts. Methods. Impressions were made by the monophasic technique using the experimental master model. Custom trays with spacing of 1, 2 and 3 mm were constructed by rapid prototyping. The overall of 10 impressions were made with each custom tray. Working casts were made with gypsum type IV. Measurement of working casts was done 24 h later using a coordinate measuring machine. Results. The obtained results show that the working casts of all the three custom trays were in most cases significantly different in the transversal and sagittal planes in relation to the master model. The height of abutments was mainly unaffected. The degree of convergence showed certain significance in all the three custom trays, most pronounced in the tray with 3 mm spacing. Conclusion. The impression material bulk of 1-3 mm could provide accurate working casts when using the monophasic impression technique. The increase of the distance between abutment teeth influences the accuracy of working casts depending on the material bulk., Uvod/Cilj. Otisak predstavlja negativ intraoralnih tkiva, čijim se izlivanjem u gipsu njihova morfologija prenosi ekstraoralno na budući radni model. Sa laboratorijskog aspekta izrade zubnih nadoknada, izlivanje tačnog i preciznog radnog modela predstavlja prvi i veoma bitan korak, pošto svaka sledeća faza doprinosi daljem povećanju greške tokom izrade, što za krajnji ishod može imati neodgovarajuću zubnu nadoknadu. Cilj istraživanja bio je da se ispitaju novi model i tehnika za in vitro procenu preciznosti zubnih otisaka, kao i da se odredi uticaj količine otisnog materijala na dimenzionu stabilnost otisaka i preciznost izrade radnih modela. Metode. Za uzimanje otisaka korišćena je monofazna tehnika otiskivanja. Individualne kašike sa međuprostorom od 1, 2 i 3 mm napravljene su aditivnom tehnologijom za brzu izradu prototipova. Sa svakom kašikom napravljeno je po 10 otisaka. Radni modeli izlivani su u gipsu tipa IV. Merenje radnih modela vršeno je nakon 24 sata na koordinatnoj mernoj mašini. Rezultati. Rezultati pokazuju da radni modeli napravljeni pomoću sve tri individulane kašike u transverzalnoj i sagitalnoj ravni značajno odstupaju od glavnog dela modela. Visina patrljaka je u većini slučajeva bila kao na glavnom modelu. Stepen konvergencije pokazao je određena odstupanja samo kod kašike sa međuprostorom od 3 mm. Zaključak. Monofazna tehnika otiskivanja i otisni materijal debljine od 1 do 3 mm obezbeđuju izradu preciznih radnih modela. Rastojanje između zubnih patrljaka utiče na preciznost izrade radnih modela u zavisnosti od količine otisnog materijala.",
publisher = "Vojnomedicinska akademija - Institut za naučne informacije, Beograd",
journal = "Vojnosanitetski pregled",
title = "Measurement of the accuracy of dental working casts using a coordinate measuring machine, Ispitivanje preciznosti radnih modela pomoću koordinatne merne mašine u stomatologiji",
volume = "73",
number = "10",
pages = "895-903",
doi = "10.2298/VSP150105089P"
}
Potran, M., Štrbac, B., Puškar, T., Hadžistević, M., Hodolič, J.,& Trifković, B.. (2016). Measurement of the accuracy of dental working casts using a coordinate measuring machine. in Vojnosanitetski pregled
Vojnomedicinska akademija - Institut za naučne informacije, Beograd., 73(10), 895-903.
https://doi.org/10.2298/VSP150105089P
Potran M, Štrbac B, Puškar T, Hadžistević M, Hodolič J, Trifković B. Measurement of the accuracy of dental working casts using a coordinate measuring machine. in Vojnosanitetski pregled. 2016;73(10):895-903.
doi:10.2298/VSP150105089P .
Potran, Michal, Štrbac, Branko, Puškar, Tatjana, Hadžistević, Miodrag, Hodolič, Janko, Trifković, Branka, "Measurement of the accuracy of dental working casts using a coordinate measuring machine" in Vojnosanitetski pregled, 73, no. 10 (2016):895-903,
https://doi.org/10.2298/VSP150105089P . .
3

Application of CAD/CAM technology in the design and creation of full anatomic bridge form zirconium dioxide

Lapčević, Ana; Jevremović, Danimir; Trifković, Branka; Santoši, Željko; Vukelić, Đorđe

(Univerzitet u Novom Sadu - Fakultet tehničkih nauka - Departman za proizvodno mašinstvo, Novi Sad, 2015)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Lapčević, Ana
AU  - Jevremović, Danimir
AU  - Trifković, Branka
AU  - Santoši, Željko
AU  - Vukelić, Đorđe
PY  - 2015
UR  - https://smile.stomf.bg.ac.rs/handle/123456789/2067
AB  - Daily progress of dentistry, especially in the field of prosthodontics is introducing new materials and technologies. With the increasing need for aesthetically acceptable and non-metal materials, it came to development and improvement of ceramic materials and computer based systems (CA). The patient came in order to compensate the missing left lateral incisor. Since the adjacent teeth are brushed and the print was taken, casted model has been scanned using 3Shape D800 laboratory scanner. Dental restoration has been designed using 3Shape DentalSystem Premium software and the available tools. After completing the virtual design, the data are sent to the program responsible for CAM Zenotec® mini CAD/CAM device. As a result, the compensation with the full morphology was obtained without the need for finishing works.
AB  - Stomatologija, posebno stomatološka protetika svakodnevno napreduje uvođenjem novih materijala i tehnologija. Kako se javlja sve veća potreba za estetski prihvatljivim i bezmetalnim materijalima, došlo je do razvoja i unapređenja keramičkih materijala i računarima podržanih sistema (CA). Pacijent se javio radi nadoknade nedostajućeg levog bočnog sekutića. Pošto su susedni zubi zbrušeni i uzet otisak, izliven je model koji je skeniran pomoću 3Shape D 800 laboratorijskog skenera. Zubna nadoknada je dizajnirana pomo ću 3Shape DentalSystem Premium softvera korišćenjem raspoloživih alata. Nakon završenog dizajna virtuelni podaci su poslati u program odgovoran za CAM Zenotec® mini CAD/CAM uređaja. Kao rezultat, dobijena je nadoknada pune morfologije bez potrebe za dorađivanjem.
PB  - Univerzitet u Novom Sadu - Fakultet tehničkih nauka - Departman za proizvodno mašinstvo, Novi Sad
T2  - Journal of Production Engineering
T1  - Application of CAD/CAM technology in the design and creation of full anatomic bridge form zirconium dioxide
T1  - Primena CAD/CAM tehnologije u projektovanju i izradi mostova pune anatomske forme na bazi cirkonijum-dioksida
VL  - 18
IS  - 1
SP  - 73
EP  - 75
UR  - https://hdl.handle.net/21.15107/rcub_smile_2067
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Lapčević, Ana and Jevremović, Danimir and Trifković, Branka and Santoši, Željko and Vukelić, Đorđe",
year = "2015",
abstract = "Daily progress of dentistry, especially in the field of prosthodontics is introducing new materials and technologies. With the increasing need for aesthetically acceptable and non-metal materials, it came to development and improvement of ceramic materials and computer based systems (CA). The patient came in order to compensate the missing left lateral incisor. Since the adjacent teeth are brushed and the print was taken, casted model has been scanned using 3Shape D800 laboratory scanner. Dental restoration has been designed using 3Shape DentalSystem Premium software and the available tools. After completing the virtual design, the data are sent to the program responsible for CAM Zenotec® mini CAD/CAM device. As a result, the compensation with the full morphology was obtained without the need for finishing works., Stomatologija, posebno stomatološka protetika svakodnevno napreduje uvođenjem novih materijala i tehnologija. Kako se javlja sve veća potreba za estetski prihvatljivim i bezmetalnim materijalima, došlo je do razvoja i unapređenja keramičkih materijala i računarima podržanih sistema (CA). Pacijent se javio radi nadoknade nedostajućeg levog bočnog sekutića. Pošto su susedni zubi zbrušeni i uzet otisak, izliven je model koji je skeniran pomoću 3Shape D 800 laboratorijskog skenera. Zubna nadoknada je dizajnirana pomo ću 3Shape DentalSystem Premium softvera korišćenjem raspoloživih alata. Nakon završenog dizajna virtuelni podaci su poslati u program odgovoran za CAM Zenotec® mini CAD/CAM uređaja. Kao rezultat, dobijena je nadoknada pune morfologije bez potrebe za dorađivanjem.",
publisher = "Univerzitet u Novom Sadu - Fakultet tehničkih nauka - Departman za proizvodno mašinstvo, Novi Sad",
journal = "Journal of Production Engineering",
title = "Application of CAD/CAM technology in the design and creation of full anatomic bridge form zirconium dioxide, Primena CAD/CAM tehnologije u projektovanju i izradi mostova pune anatomske forme na bazi cirkonijum-dioksida",
volume = "18",
number = "1",
pages = "73-75",
url = "https://hdl.handle.net/21.15107/rcub_smile_2067"
}
Lapčević, A., Jevremović, D., Trifković, B., Santoši, Ž.,& Vukelić, Đ.. (2015). Application of CAD/CAM technology in the design and creation of full anatomic bridge form zirconium dioxide. in Journal of Production Engineering
Univerzitet u Novom Sadu - Fakultet tehničkih nauka - Departman za proizvodno mašinstvo, Novi Sad., 18(1), 73-75.
https://hdl.handle.net/21.15107/rcub_smile_2067
Lapčević A, Jevremović D, Trifković B, Santoši Ž, Vukelić Đ. Application of CAD/CAM technology in the design and creation of full anatomic bridge form zirconium dioxide. in Journal of Production Engineering. 2015;18(1):73-75.
https://hdl.handle.net/21.15107/rcub_smile_2067 .
Lapčević, Ana, Jevremović, Danimir, Trifković, Branka, Santoši, Željko, Vukelić, Đorđe, "Application of CAD/CAM technology in the design and creation of full anatomic bridge form zirconium dioxide" in Journal of Production Engineering, 18, no. 1 (2015):73-75,
https://hdl.handle.net/21.15107/rcub_smile_2067 .

Comparative analysis on measuring performances of dental intraoral and extraoral optical 3D digitization systems

Trifković, Branka; Budak, Igor; Todorović, Aleksandar; Vukelić, Đorđe; Lazić, Vojkan; Puškar, Tatjana

(Elsevier Sci Ltd, Oxford, 2014)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Trifković, Branka
AU  - Budak, Igor
AU  - Todorović, Aleksandar
AU  - Vukelić, Đorđe
AU  - Lazić, Vojkan
AU  - Puškar, Tatjana
PY  - 2014
UR  - https://smile.stomf.bg.ac.rs/handle/123456789/1931
AB  - Implementation of the methods of 3D digitization in dental practice is a modern and sophisticated alternative to the method of conventional impressions. Among many different methods of 3D digitization applied in dentistry, optical methods can be considered as today mostly applied, especially in the field of prosthodontics. The developments of this kind of systems have converged in two main directions - extraoral and intraoral systems. The main quality parameters for evaluating measuring performances of 3D digitization methods and systems include accuracy and precision. By introducing LED blue light in intra-and extraoral cameras, the Cerec system has significantly improved the quality of 3D digitization results. As the technical features of cameras in both types of systems are identical and the difference of the digitization methods is connected only to operating environments, the main goal of the research was to analyze whether different digitization conditions significantly influence the systems' measuring performances. Analyzes were focused on investigating accuracy and precision of two mentioned specialized dental optical systems on the basis of CAD inspection, with special attention on evaluating statistically significant differences within the obtained results. Statistically significant difference was not found in systems' precision, while the extra oral system was found as of significantly higher accuracy.
PB  - Elsevier Sci Ltd, Oxford
T2  - Measurement
T1  - Comparative analysis on measuring performances of dental intraoral and extraoral optical 3D digitization systems
VL  - 47
SP  - 45
EP  - 53
DO  - 10.1016/j.measurement.2013.08.051
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Trifković, Branka and Budak, Igor and Todorović, Aleksandar and Vukelić, Đorđe and Lazić, Vojkan and Puškar, Tatjana",
year = "2014",
abstract = "Implementation of the methods of 3D digitization in dental practice is a modern and sophisticated alternative to the method of conventional impressions. Among many different methods of 3D digitization applied in dentistry, optical methods can be considered as today mostly applied, especially in the field of prosthodontics. The developments of this kind of systems have converged in two main directions - extraoral and intraoral systems. The main quality parameters for evaluating measuring performances of 3D digitization methods and systems include accuracy and precision. By introducing LED blue light in intra-and extraoral cameras, the Cerec system has significantly improved the quality of 3D digitization results. As the technical features of cameras in both types of systems are identical and the difference of the digitization methods is connected only to operating environments, the main goal of the research was to analyze whether different digitization conditions significantly influence the systems' measuring performances. Analyzes were focused on investigating accuracy and precision of two mentioned specialized dental optical systems on the basis of CAD inspection, with special attention on evaluating statistically significant differences within the obtained results. Statistically significant difference was not found in systems' precision, while the extra oral system was found as of significantly higher accuracy.",
publisher = "Elsevier Sci Ltd, Oxford",
journal = "Measurement",
title = "Comparative analysis on measuring performances of dental intraoral and extraoral optical 3D digitization systems",
volume = "47",
pages = "45-53",
doi = "10.1016/j.measurement.2013.08.051"
}
Trifković, B., Budak, I., Todorović, A., Vukelić, Đ., Lazić, V.,& Puškar, T.. (2014). Comparative analysis on measuring performances of dental intraoral and extraoral optical 3D digitization systems. in Measurement
Elsevier Sci Ltd, Oxford., 47, 45-53.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.measurement.2013.08.051
Trifković B, Budak I, Todorović A, Vukelić Đ, Lazić V, Puškar T. Comparative analysis on measuring performances of dental intraoral and extraoral optical 3D digitization systems. in Measurement. 2014;47:45-53.
doi:10.1016/j.measurement.2013.08.051 .
Trifković, Branka, Budak, Igor, Todorović, Aleksandar, Vukelić, Đorđe, Lazić, Vojkan, Puškar, Tatjana, "Comparative analysis on measuring performances of dental intraoral and extraoral optical 3D digitization systems" in Measurement, 47 (2014):45-53,
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.measurement.2013.08.051 . .
30
25
35

Comparative analysis of 3d digitization systems in the field of dental prosthetics

Budak, Igor; Trifković, Branka; Puškar, Tatjana; Vukelić, Đorđe; Vucaj-Cirilović, Viktorija; Hodolić, Janko; Todorović, Aleksandar

(Faculty of Mechanical Engineering in Slavonski Brod, Faculty of Electrical Engineering in Osijek, Faculty of Civil Engineering in Osijek, 2013)

TY  - JOUR
AU  - Budak, Igor
AU  - Trifković, Branka
AU  - Puškar, Tatjana
AU  - Vukelić, Đorđe
AU  - Vucaj-Cirilović, Viktorija
AU  - Hodolić, Janko
AU  - Todorović, Aleksandar
PY  - 2013
UR  - https://smile.stomf.bg.ac.rs/handle/123456789/1845
AB  - Amongst the modern engineering technologies which have found broad application in the field of dentistry, one of the most widely used is the 3D digitization. This paper deals with the application of 3D digitization systems in the field of dental prosthetics, and attempt to contribute in this field through comparative analysis of this kind of systems. Special attention is focused on extra oral 3D digitization systems and among them on non specialized dental 3D digitization systems. Beside the general overview and analysis of nine different systems, this paper presents experimental results of comparative accuracy analysis of two high-end 3D digitization systems - Atos II Triple Scan and Zeiss Metrotom 1500. Investigation was based on CAD inspection technique and included 3D and 2D cross sectional analysis. Results related to 3D analysis show that the majority of deviations are in positive direction, concentrated around 0,025 mm. Results of 2D analysis implicate the conclusion that the accuracy of the analysed systems is dependent on surface shape as well as on the model position during the process of 3D digitization.
PB  - Faculty of Mechanical Engineering in Slavonski Brod, Faculty of Electrical Engineering in Osijek, Faculty of Civil Engineering in Osijek
T2  - Tehnički vjesnik
T1  - Comparative analysis of 3d digitization systems in the field of dental prosthetics
VL  - 20
IS  - 2
SP  - 291
EP  - 296
UR  - https://hdl.handle.net/21.15107/rcub_smile_1845
ER  - 
@article{
author = "Budak, Igor and Trifković, Branka and Puškar, Tatjana and Vukelić, Đorđe and Vucaj-Cirilović, Viktorija and Hodolić, Janko and Todorović, Aleksandar",
year = "2013",
abstract = "Amongst the modern engineering technologies which have found broad application in the field of dentistry, one of the most widely used is the 3D digitization. This paper deals with the application of 3D digitization systems in the field of dental prosthetics, and attempt to contribute in this field through comparative analysis of this kind of systems. Special attention is focused on extra oral 3D digitization systems and among them on non specialized dental 3D digitization systems. Beside the general overview and analysis of nine different systems, this paper presents experimental results of comparative accuracy analysis of two high-end 3D digitization systems - Atos II Triple Scan and Zeiss Metrotom 1500. Investigation was based on CAD inspection technique and included 3D and 2D cross sectional analysis. Results related to 3D analysis show that the majority of deviations are in positive direction, concentrated around 0,025 mm. Results of 2D analysis implicate the conclusion that the accuracy of the analysed systems is dependent on surface shape as well as on the model position during the process of 3D digitization.",
publisher = "Faculty of Mechanical Engineering in Slavonski Brod, Faculty of Electrical Engineering in Osijek, Faculty of Civil Engineering in Osijek",
journal = "Tehnički vjesnik",
title = "Comparative analysis of 3d digitization systems in the field of dental prosthetics",
volume = "20",
number = "2",
pages = "291-296",
url = "https://hdl.handle.net/21.15107/rcub_smile_1845"
}
Budak, I., Trifković, B., Puškar, T., Vukelić, Đ., Vucaj-Cirilović, V., Hodolić, J.,& Todorović, A.. (2013). Comparative analysis of 3d digitization systems in the field of dental prosthetics. in Tehnički vjesnik
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering in Slavonski Brod, Faculty of Electrical Engineering in Osijek, Faculty of Civil Engineering in Osijek., 20(2), 291-296.
https://hdl.handle.net/21.15107/rcub_smile_1845
Budak I, Trifković B, Puškar T, Vukelić Đ, Vucaj-Cirilović V, Hodolić J, Todorović A. Comparative analysis of 3d digitization systems in the field of dental prosthetics. in Tehnički vjesnik. 2013;20(2):291-296.
https://hdl.handle.net/21.15107/rcub_smile_1845 .
Budak, Igor, Trifković, Branka, Puškar, Tatjana, Vukelić, Đorđe, Vucaj-Cirilović, Viktorija, Hodolić, Janko, Todorović, Aleksandar, "Comparative analysis of 3d digitization systems in the field of dental prosthetics" in Tehnički vjesnik, 20, no. 2 (2013):291-296,
https://hdl.handle.net/21.15107/rcub_smile_1845 .
11
12

Analysis of metrological characteristics of the optical digitization devices in dental CAD/CAM technology

Trifković, Branka

(Univerzitet u Beogradu, Stomatološki fakultet, 2012)

TY  - THES
AU  - Trifković, Branka
PY  - 2012
UR  - http://eteze.bg.ac.rs/application/showtheses?thesesId=601
UR  - https://fedorabg.bg.ac.rs/fedora/get/o:6765/bdef:Content/download
UR  - http://vbs.rs/scripts/cobiss?command=DISPLAY&base=70036&RID=1024188558
UR  - http://nardus.mpn.gov.rs/123456789/2693
UR  - https://smile.stomf.bg.ac.rs/handle/123456789/954
AB  - Development and improvement of 3D digitization methods in the last forty years, have enabled that virtual impression in dentistry becomes a reality. Unlike conventional impressions, which represent negative copies of prepared teeth and surrounding tissue, 3D digitization collects data on the coordinates of surface points and transfers them into digital form. Various working principles of 3D digitization methods were the reason, that in the framework of this reasearch to invstigate and compare the basic metrological characteristics of selected optical digitization devices. Based on the hypothesis, following goal of investigation were formulated: to establish whether there is a difference in the accuracy and precision between the optical digitization devices where the process of digitization based on various working principles and determine the degree of measurment uncertainty. The basis of this experiment is CAD inspection. CAD inspection was used to measure and analyze deviations between the CAD reference model and experimental CAD models. In this way is possibile to determine the precision and accuracy of the observed optical digital device. The experimental CAD models were generated by 3D digitization of the stone replica using Cerec® AC (Sirona, Germany), Cerec® In Eos Blue (Sirona, Germany), Trios (3 shape AS, Denmark), KaVo Everest (KaVo, Germany) and Sinergia Scan (Nobil - Metal, S.p.A. Italy) surface digitization devices. The CAD master model was generated by 3D digitization of the stone replica, using Atos III Triple Scan surface digitization device. Processing of the measured results included 2D and 3D analysis. The results of 3D analysis showed thet the highest level of precision in the proceeding of digitizing the right half of upper dental arch are present in Sinergia Scan, then follow KaVo Everest, Trios, Cerec®InEos Blue i Cerec®AC devices. The highest level of accuracy in the same procedure have Cerec®InEos Blue, follow the Sinergia Scan, Cerec®AC i KaVo Everest...
AB  - Razvoj i unapređenje metoda 3D digitalizacije u proteklih četrdeset godina, omogućio je da se ideja o primeni digitalnog otiska u stomatologiji pretvori u stvarnost. Za razliku od konvencionalnog otiska koji predstavlja kopiju zuba i okolnih tkiva u negativu, 3D digitalizacija je postupak u okviru koga se vrši prikupljanje podataka u vidu koordinata – tačaka i obavla njihovo prevođenje u digitalnu formu. Razlike u radnim principima postupaka 3D digitalizacije predstavljale su povod da se u okviru istraživanja ispitaju i uporede osnovne metrološke karakteristike odabranih uređaja za optičku digitalizaciju, koji se primenjuju u stomatološkoj praksi. Na osnovu postavljene hipoteze definisan je osnovni cilj istraživanja: utvrditi da li postoji razlika u preciznosti i tačnosti između uređaja za optičku digitalizaciju kod kojih je postupak digitalizacije zasnovan na različitim radnim principima i na osnovu toga proceniti stepen njihove merne nesigurnosti. Osnovu eksperimenta čini metoda CAD inspekcije, čijom primenom je moguće izvršiti kvantitativnu i kvalitativnu analizu izmerenih odstupanja uzoraka CAD eksperimentalnih modela u odnosu na CAD master model i na taj način utvrdi stepen preciznosti i tačnosti posmatranih uređaja. CAD eksperimentalni uzorci su nastali u postupku digitalizacije osnovnog modela od gipsa pomoću sledećih uređaja: Cerec®AC (Sirona, Germany), Cerec® InEos Blue (Sirona, Germany), Trios (3 shape AS, Denmark), KaVo Everest (KaVo, Germany) i Sinergia Scan (Nobil - Metal, S.p.A. Italy). Digitalizacijom osnovnog modela pomoću industrijskog optičkog uređaja Atos III Triple Scan dobijen je CAD master model. Obrada izmerenih rezultata obuhvatala je 3D i 2D analizu. Rezultati 3D analize prikazuju da je najviši stepen preciznosti uređaja u postupku digitalizacije desne polovine zubnog luka gornje vilice prisutan kod Sinergia Scan, slede KaVo Everest, Trios, Cerec®InEos Blue i Cerec®AC uređaji. Najviši stepen tačnosti u istom postupku ima Cerec®InEos Blue, slede Sinergia Scan, Cerec®AC i KaVo Everest uređaji. Dobijeni rezultati potvrđuju da uređaji za ekstraoralnu digitalizaciju imaju viši stepen tačnosti i preciznosti u odnosu na uređaje za intraoralnu digitalizaciju...
PB  - Univerzitet u Beogradu, Stomatološki fakultet
T1  - Analysis of metrological characteristics of the optical digitization devices in dental CAD/CAM technology
T1  - Analiza metroloških karakteristika uređaja za optičku digitalizaciju stomatoloških CAD/CAM sistema
UR  - https://hdl.handle.net/21.15107/rcub_nardus_2693
ER  - 
@phdthesis{
author = "Trifković, Branka",
year = "2012",
abstract = "Development and improvement of 3D digitization methods in the last forty years, have enabled that virtual impression in dentistry becomes a reality. Unlike conventional impressions, which represent negative copies of prepared teeth and surrounding tissue, 3D digitization collects data on the coordinates of surface points and transfers them into digital form. Various working principles of 3D digitization methods were the reason, that in the framework of this reasearch to invstigate and compare the basic metrological characteristics of selected optical digitization devices. Based on the hypothesis, following goal of investigation were formulated: to establish whether there is a difference in the accuracy and precision between the optical digitization devices where the process of digitization based on various working principles and determine the degree of measurment uncertainty. The basis of this experiment is CAD inspection. CAD inspection was used to measure and analyze deviations between the CAD reference model and experimental CAD models. In this way is possibile to determine the precision and accuracy of the observed optical digital device. The experimental CAD models were generated by 3D digitization of the stone replica using Cerec® AC (Sirona, Germany), Cerec® In Eos Blue (Sirona, Germany), Trios (3 shape AS, Denmark), KaVo Everest (KaVo, Germany) and Sinergia Scan (Nobil - Metal, S.p.A. Italy) surface digitization devices. The CAD master model was generated by 3D digitization of the stone replica, using Atos III Triple Scan surface digitization device. Processing of the measured results included 2D and 3D analysis. The results of 3D analysis showed thet the highest level of precision in the proceeding of digitizing the right half of upper dental arch are present in Sinergia Scan, then follow KaVo Everest, Trios, Cerec®InEos Blue i Cerec®AC devices. The highest level of accuracy in the same procedure have Cerec®InEos Blue, follow the Sinergia Scan, Cerec®AC i KaVo Everest..., Razvoj i unapređenje metoda 3D digitalizacije u proteklih četrdeset godina, omogućio je da se ideja o primeni digitalnog otiska u stomatologiji pretvori u stvarnost. Za razliku od konvencionalnog otiska koji predstavlja kopiju zuba i okolnih tkiva u negativu, 3D digitalizacija je postupak u okviru koga se vrši prikupljanje podataka u vidu koordinata – tačaka i obavla njihovo prevođenje u digitalnu formu. Razlike u radnim principima postupaka 3D digitalizacije predstavljale su povod da se u okviru istraživanja ispitaju i uporede osnovne metrološke karakteristike odabranih uređaja za optičku digitalizaciju, koji se primenjuju u stomatološkoj praksi. Na osnovu postavljene hipoteze definisan je osnovni cilj istraživanja: utvrditi da li postoji razlika u preciznosti i tačnosti između uređaja za optičku digitalizaciju kod kojih je postupak digitalizacije zasnovan na različitim radnim principima i na osnovu toga proceniti stepen njihove merne nesigurnosti. Osnovu eksperimenta čini metoda CAD inspekcije, čijom primenom je moguće izvršiti kvantitativnu i kvalitativnu analizu izmerenih odstupanja uzoraka CAD eksperimentalnih modela u odnosu na CAD master model i na taj način utvrdi stepen preciznosti i tačnosti posmatranih uređaja. CAD eksperimentalni uzorci su nastali u postupku digitalizacije osnovnog modela od gipsa pomoću sledećih uređaja: Cerec®AC (Sirona, Germany), Cerec® InEos Blue (Sirona, Germany), Trios (3 shape AS, Denmark), KaVo Everest (KaVo, Germany) i Sinergia Scan (Nobil - Metal, S.p.A. Italy). Digitalizacijom osnovnog modela pomoću industrijskog optičkog uređaja Atos III Triple Scan dobijen je CAD master model. Obrada izmerenih rezultata obuhvatala je 3D i 2D analizu. Rezultati 3D analize prikazuju da je najviši stepen preciznosti uređaja u postupku digitalizacije desne polovine zubnog luka gornje vilice prisutan kod Sinergia Scan, slede KaVo Everest, Trios, Cerec®InEos Blue i Cerec®AC uređaji. Najviši stepen tačnosti u istom postupku ima Cerec®InEos Blue, slede Sinergia Scan, Cerec®AC i KaVo Everest uređaji. Dobijeni rezultati potvrđuju da uređaji za ekstraoralnu digitalizaciju imaju viši stepen tačnosti i preciznosti u odnosu na uređaje za intraoralnu digitalizaciju...",
publisher = "Univerzitet u Beogradu, Stomatološki fakultet",
title = "Analysis of metrological characteristics of the optical digitization devices in dental CAD/CAM technology, Analiza metroloških karakteristika uređaja za optičku digitalizaciju stomatoloških CAD/CAM sistema",
url = "https://hdl.handle.net/21.15107/rcub_nardus_2693"
}
Trifković, B.. (2012). Analysis of metrological characteristics of the optical digitization devices in dental CAD/CAM technology. 
Univerzitet u Beogradu, Stomatološki fakultet..
https://hdl.handle.net/21.15107/rcub_nardus_2693
Trifković B. Analysis of metrological characteristics of the optical digitization devices in dental CAD/CAM technology. 2012;.
https://hdl.handle.net/21.15107/rcub_nardus_2693 .
Trifković, Branka, "Analysis of metrological characteristics of the optical digitization devices in dental CAD/CAM technology" (2012),
https://hdl.handle.net/21.15107/rcub_nardus_2693 .