Mandibular lateral deviation induces alteration in vascular endothelial growth factor expression and oxidative stress/nitric oxide generation in rat condyle, synovial membrane and masseter muscle
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Objective: We aimed to investigate alteration in cellular signaling mediated by vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and parameters of oxidative stress/nitric oxide generation, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), underlying altered functional mechanical loading of TMJ (temporomandibular joint) during lateral mandibular deviation. Design: Thirty-eight 5-week-old male Wistar rats were divided into experimental group, which received acrylic resin appliance that shifted mandible to the left during closure, and control group. Computed tomography and histomorphometry were used for condyle analyses, while samples of condyle, synovial membrane and m. masseter were analyzed with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and spectrophotometry to determine VEGF and nNOS protein concentrations, and SOD activity. Results: Experimental group of rats developed smaller and asymmetrical mandibles. Less of new bone and cartilage formation and larger bone marrow cavities ar...ea were found in the experimental group. Higher VEGF expression in condyle and m. masseter as well as higher nNOS expression in m. masseter and synovial membrane were found in the experimental compared to the control group. Alteration of SOD activity was found in m. masseter and synovial membrane in the experimental group. Conclusions: Lateral mandibular deviation induces mandibular and condylar morphological changes as well as significant cellular signaling alterations in condyle, synovial membrane and masticatory muscle. Cellular VEGF protein overexpression and oxidative stress/nitric oxide disbalance could be the mechanisms underlying unbalanced functional TMJ loading due to mandibular deviation.
Keywords:Lateral mandibular deviation / VEGF / Oxidative stress / nNOS / m. Masseter / Synovial membrane / Condyle
Source:Archives of Oral Biology, 2020, 110
- Pergamon-Elsevier Science Ltd, Oxford